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The Pact (Covenant) of Umar (c. 717 A.D.) is a fundamental document in prescribing the treatment of conquered people, or "dhimmi", by Muslims. According to Islamic tradition, the Pact is a treaty formulated for the treatment of the "ahl al-kitab", ("People of the Book") - Jews and Christians - living on the lands newly conquered and colonized by Muslims. Due to the rapid growth of Islamic domination during 7th century, Muslims leaders were required to work out a way of dealing with Non-Muslims, who remained in the majority in many areas for centuries. The solution was to develop the notion of the dhimma, people who were allowed to basically keep their religion, but but were kept under submission by repressive rules. Violation of the terms of the pact by Dhimmi rendered them "liable to the penalties for contumacy and sedition."

Sometimes the Pact was repromulgated as a reminder to forgetful dhimmi, and in so doing Mamluk sultans during the latter Middle Ages specified that dhimmi could not be in service to the State.

The author of the Pact, which exists in several somewhat varied textual forms, is generally understood by many to be the Muslim caliph Umar ibn AbdulAziz (682 - 720), or Umar II, though it has been attributed to the first Caliph, Umar ibn-al-Khattab (586 - 590). Some modern scholars believe it is the product of later jurists who attributed it to the caliph Umar in order to lend greater authority to their own opinions, and it is assumed that it's present form dates to around the ninth century (Sources: David J. Jonsson, “The Clash of Ideologies”, pp. 526-29. Mark R. Cohen, “Under Crescent and Cross”, pp. 72,73, 163-5. Overview from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pact_of_Umar_II)

Regardless of its author, the Pact of Umar served as one model for Muslims on how to govern conquered non-Muslims, a roles it continues to the present day. Inspiration for this treatment may have come from non-Islamic sources, as well as the overall moderate first Caliph, Umar ibn-al-Khattab (author of the less restrictive "Umari Treaty" for dhimmi in Jerusalem). The 11th century, A.D. book, "Rules and Regulations Governing the People of the Book", by Muslim theologian “ Ibn Hazm (994-1064), states,

“These are the Rules and Regulations that were imposed by ‘Umar ibn-al-Khattab' [634–44] on the Christians of Syria, after conquering their land. The purpose of these rules was to make them submissive and contemptible. Christians were in no way to exhibit any sign of their unbelief, or anything forbidden in Islam. since Allah, the supremely Glorified and Honored, had said:

And fight them until persecution is no more, and religion is all for Allah. But if they cease, then lo! Allah is Seer of what they do.” Qur'an 8:39 (Pickthall’s Translation) (Source: Jacob Thomas, The Onerous Rules & Regulations Imposed on the People of the Book”, answering-islam.org)

See here on contradictions between the teaching of the Bible and the Qu'ran regarding this and other doctrines.

Pact of Umar

We heard from Abd al-Rahman ibn Ghanam [died 697 A.D.] as follows: When Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, accorded a peace to the Christians of Syria, we wrote to him as follows:

In the name of Allah, the Merciful and Compassionate. This is a letter to the servant of Allah Umar [ibn al-Khattab], Commander of the Faithful, from the Christians of such-and-such a city. When you came against us, we asked you for safe-conduct (aman) for ourselves, our descendants, our property, and the people of our community, and we undertook the following obligations toward you:

• We shall not build, in our cities or in their neighborhood, new monasteries, Churches, convents, or monks' cells, nor shall we repair, by day or by night, such of them as fall in ruins or are situated in the quarters of the Muslims.

• We shall keep our gates wide open for passersby and travelers. We shall give board and lodging to all Muslims who pass our way for three days.

• We shall not give shelter in our churches or in our dwellings to any spy, nor bide him from the Muslims.

• We shall not teach the Qur'an to our children.

• We shall not manifest our religion publicly nor convert anyone to it. We shall not prevent any of our kin from entering Islam if they wish it.

• We shall show respect toward the Muslims, and we shall rise from our seats when they wish to sit.

• We shall not seek to resemble the Muslims by imitating any of their garments, the qalansuwa, the turban, footwear, or the parting of the hair. We shall not speak as they do, nor shall we adopt their kunyas.

• We shall not mount on saddles, nor shall we gird swords nor bear any kind of arms nor carry them on our- persons.

• We shall not engrave Arabic inscriptions on our seals.

• We shall not sell fermented drinks.

• We shall clip the fronts of our heads.

• We shall always dress in the same way wherever we may be, and we shall bind the zunar round our waists

• We shall not display our crosses or our books in the roads or markets of the Muslims.

• We shall use only clappers in our churches very softly. We shall not raise our voices when following our dead.

• We shall not show lights on any of the roads of the Muslims or in their markets. We shall not bury our dead near the Muslims.

• We shall not take slaves who have been allotted to Muslims.

• We shall not build houses overtopping the houses of the Muslims.

(When I brought the letter to Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, he added, "We shall not strike a Muslim.")

• We accept these conditions for ourselves and for the people of our community, and in return we receive safe-conduct.

• If we in any way violate these undertakings for which we ourselves stand surety, we forfeit our covenant [dhimma], and we become liable to the penalties for contumacy and sedition.

•Umar ibn al-Khittab replied: Sign what they ask, but add two clauses and impose them in addition to those which they have undertaken. They are: "

• "They shall not buy anyone made prisoner by the Muslims," and

• "Whoever strikes a Muslim with deliberate intent shall forfeit the protection of this pact."

(from Al-Turtushi, Siraj al-Muluk, pp. 229-230)

Jorge S Jun 16, 2018 at 7:25 pm Flag as inappropriate

After the Battle of the Ditch Muhammad attacks the last of the large Jewish tribes of Medina, the Banu Qurayza. After a 25 days siege, they surrender unconditionally. In the end, all 600-700 males of the tribe are killed and the women and children sold into slavery.

Muslims have many versions trying explain away the cruelty of these events and are trying shift them blame away from Muhammad to the Jews themselves.

We will not argue the Banu Qurayza are 100% innocent angels, or the Muslims are 100% evil devils. This is not and never was the claim. In every war, both sides commit injustices and do evil things. And in each war, the losing side has to pay some penalty. We do not expect otherwise. But the kind of penalty and its relationship to the crime is a valid question.

This paper is an examination of the early Muslim sources to give a detailed account of the events.

Instead of responding to various Muslim constructions one by one, since there are as many versions as there is creativity, we will rather look at the account as it is reported by Ibn Ishaq in his word Sirat Rasul Allah available in the abridged edition of Ibn Hisham, and translated by A. Guillaume under the title The Life of Muhammad. This is is by far the oldest (written) account of Muhammad's life in regard to the date of its first composition. Besides this work we will make use of a number of hadith as found in Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

The issue is what kind of character this event reveals in Muhammad, since this is part of the evidence for or against him being a true prophet of God. Muslims often argue that the exemplary character of Muhammad is (part of) the proof that his is a true prophet. Such a claim should be investigated.

We all agree that Ghengis Khan, or Stalin were cruel men. That is fact of history. And we accept it as it is. It has not much influence on our daily life (at least if none of our direct family or friends were victims of Stalin). But nobody denies it because it has no direct personal relevance what kind of man Stalin was. We are not called to imitate Stalin.

With Muhammad on the other hand, his character is not only used as proof for his prophethood, his life is taken to be normative in many ways for the Muslims. He is declared to be the model for mankind. Therefore we need to look whom we are called to take as our model and whether he should be taken as a model. These two aspects imply that we need to look at his life in detail.

After the Quraysh have retreated back to Mecca, Ibn Ishaq's report on the battle of the trench ends with the words

In the morning the apostle and the Muslims left the trench and returned to Medina, laying their arms aside. [Sirat, p. 460]

But the rest after the battle is shortly after interrupted as the next paragraph in Sirat continues with

THE RAID ON B. QURAYZA

According to what al-Zuhri told me, at the time of the noon prayers Gabriel came to the apostle wearing an embroidered turban and riding on a mule with a saddle covered with a piece of brocade. He asked the apostle if he had abandoned fighting, and when he said that he had he said that the angels had not yet laid aside their arms and that he had just come from pursuing the enemy. 'God commands you, Muhammad, to go to B. Qurayza. I am about to go to them to shake their stronghold.'

The prophet ordered it to be announced that none should perform the afternoon prayer until after he reached B. Qurayza (705). The apostle sent `Ali forward with his banner and the men hastened to it. ... [Sirat, p. 461]

[Some details on the arrival of the Muslims and exchanges of insults omitted.]

The apostle besieged them for twenty-five nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts.
Now Huyayy b. Akhtab had gone with B. Qurayza into their forts when Quraysh and Ghatafan had withdrawn and left them, to keep his word to Ka`b b. Asad. and when they felt sure that the apostle would not leave them until he had made an end of them Ka`b b. Asad said to them: 'O Jews, you can see what has happened to you. I offer you three alternatives. Take which you please.' (i) We will follow this man and accept him as true, for by God it has become plain to you that he is a prophet who has been sent and that it is he that you find mentioned in your scripture, and then your lives, your property, your women and children will be saved. They said, 'We will never abandon the laws of the Torah and never change it for another.' He said, 'Then if you won't accept this suggestion (ii) let us kill our wives and children and send men with their swords drawn to Muhammad and his companions leaving no encumbrances behind us, until God decides between us and Muhammad. If we perish, we perish, and we shall not leave children behind us to cause us anxiety. If we conquer we can acquire other wives and children.' They said, 'Should we kill these poor creatures? What would be the good of life when they were dead?' He said, 'Then if you will not accept this suggestion (iii) tonight is the eve of the sabbath and it may well be that Muhammad and his companions will feel secure from us then, so come down, perhaps we can take Muhammad and his companions by surprise.' They said: 'Are we to profane our sabbath and do on the sabbath what those before us of whom you well know did and were turned into apes?' He answered, 'Not a single man among you from the day of your birth has ever passed a night resolved to do what he knows ought to be done.' [Sirat, pp. 461-462]

It is not clear to me how serious this "inside discussion" is to be taken. How would Ibn Ishaq know about it? It looks like he tries to give a reason why they might not have become Muslims and saved their lives that way as most of the Arab tribes did. Whatever the authenticity of this discussion, it shows that the Jews would not even transgress the law of their book, the Torah, in the face of danger for their life. That doesn't harmonize well with the charges of frivolously corrupting it for a small price as the accusation in the Qur'an wants to indicate.

One more observation on the above paragraph:

Now Huyayy b. Akhtab had gone with B. Qurayza into their forts when Quraysh and Ghatafan had withdrawn and left them, to keep his word to Ka`b b. Asad. and when they felt sure that the apostle would not leave them until he had made an end of them Ka`b b. Asad said to them: 'O Jews, you can see what has happened to you. I offer you three alternatives. ...

And then they discussed the alternatives and we read of their reaction. Whether the proposed alternatives are factional or fictional is not so important at this point. The reason for their discussion is more likely within the kernel of truth. What does it mean that "the apostle would not leave them until he had made an end of them"? Maybe we can't say that yet, but we should keep that phrase in mind.

The text in "Sirat Rasul Allah" continues:

Then they sent to the apostle saying, 'Send us Abu Lubaba b. `Abdu'l-Mundhir, brother of B. `Amr b. `Auf (for they were allies of al-Aus), that we may consult him.' So the apostle sent him to them, and when they saw him they got up to meet him. The women and children went up to him weeping in his face, and he felt sorry for them. They said, 'Oh Abu Lubaba, do you think that we should submit to Muhammad's judgement ?' He said, 'Yes,' and pointed with his hand to his throat, signifying slaughter. Abu Lubaba said, 'My feet had not moved from the spot before I knew that I had been false to God and His apostle.' Then he left them and did not go to the apostle but bound himself to one of the pillars in the mosque saying, 'I will not leave this place until God forgives me for what I have done,' and he promised God that he would never go to B. Qurayza and would never be seen in a town in which he had betrayed God and His apostle. [Sirat, p. 462]

What do we learn here? Abu Lubaba was a Muslim. But he was still trusted (because of former friendship?) by the Banu Qurayza (or he was just the only one available they could think of to maybe be sympathetic among the Muslim opponents), so they asked him for arbitration. When he meets his former friends he is overcome with compassion and even though as a good Muslim he can't other than say that they should submit to Muhammad, he indicates with a sign that Muhammad has the plan to kill them. But as soon as he has warned them in this way, he is overcome with remorse that he has revealed Muhammad's plan to the enemy.

It follows a long story of Abu Lubaba chaining himself to a pillar and refusing to move until Muhammad would forgive him and how this happens .... which is omitted.

However, after the 25 days siege, the situation of the Banu Qurayza was now hopeless and the next morning the they officially surrendered.

In the morning they submitted to the apostle's judgement and al-Aus leapt up and said, 'O Apostle, they are our allies, not allies of Khazraj, and you know how you recently treated the allies of our brethren.' Now the apostle had besieged B. Qaynuqa` who were allies of al-Khazraj and when they submitted to his judgement `Abdullah b. Ubayy b. Salul had asked him for them and he gave them to him. so when al-Aus spoke thus the apostle said: 'Will you be satisfied, O Aus, if one of your own number pronounces judgement on them ?' When they agreed he said that Sa`d b. Mu`adh was the man. [Sirat, p. 463]

Let us summarize the observations so far.

1. Remember the phrase from the beginning? It said "and when they felt sure that the apostle would not leave them until he had made an end of them". This indicates the B. Qurayza knew what Muhammad was up to.

2. When Abu Lubaba a Muslim who fought on Muhammad's side was asked by them what will happen and what they should do, he indicates slaughter. This is not a prejudiced fear of the enemy (we might often exaggerate what the enemies might do to us and have an image of them worse than their actual nature), this now is the expectation or knowledge of a Muslim about his own prophet.

3. When they surrender to Muhammad, the immediate reaction of the al-Aus is to intercede for them. Why would they remind the Prophet of what he had done earlier? Does that look like they expected him to be naturally merciful? If they expected him to be merciful why did they not rest in assurance that Muhammad would act with more mercy than any of them would have? This kind of immediate reaction shows they feared for their friends now that they have surrendered, and they bring the best argument they have to sway Muhammad from his plan. They appeal to his justice regarding how he treats his friends and since he did hear the intercession of the other tribe earlier he shouldn't be seen playing favorites with them and also acknowledge their earlier alliance with the Banu Qurayza. They do not appeal to his nature of mercy towards the Jews, but to his nature as statesman who needs to be impartial with all his companions. This reaction certainly shows that the al-Aus feared for their friends and did not have the impression Muhammad had mercy on his mind.

The people from al-Aus reminded Muhammad of his earlier decision in regard to the other Jewish tribe of the Banu Qaynuqa`. In order to understand this reference, let me quote what this is all about.

`Asim b. `Umar b. Qatada said that the B. Qaynuqa` were the first of the Jews to break their agreement with the apostle and to go to war, between Badr and Uhud, and the apostle besieged them until they surrendered unconditionally. `Abdullah b. Ubayy b. Salul went to him when God had put them in his power and said, 'O Muhammad, deal kindly with my clients' (now they were allies of Khazraj), but the apostle put him off. He repeated the words, and the apostle turned away from him, whereupon he thrust his hand into the collar of the apostle's robe. the apostle was so angry that his face became almost black. He said, 'Confound you, let me go.' He answered, 'No, by God, I will not let you go until you deal kindly with my clients. Four hundred men without mail and three hundred mailed protected me from all mine enemies. would you cut them down in one morning? By God, I am a man who fears that circumstances may change.' The apostle said, 'You can have them.' [Sirat, p. 363]

What impression do we get of Muhammad's intention? How easily was he convinced to be merciful to them?

When `Abdullah interceded for them and insisted on it, Muhammad became extremely angry and it took great courage on the part of `Abdullah to stick to his request and even use physical force against Muhammad to hold him back from massacering all of the tribe. This confirms that Muhammad had the intention of killing the Banu Qaynuqa` from the very beginning and only was hindered by others from doing so. Muhammad was not easily swayed in his intention, but it took considerable effort hindering him.

There was another tribe of Jews in Medina. the Banu al-Nadir. They are not refered to in our story, but they also contribute something to our understanding.

Concerning B. al-Nadir the Sura of Exile came down in which is recorded how God wreaked His vengeance on them and gave His apostle power over them and how He dealt with them. God said: 'He it is who turned out those who disbelieved of the scripture people from their homes to the first exile. ... 'So consider this, you who have understanding. Had not God prescribed deportation against them,' which was vengeance from God, 'He would have punished them in this world,' i.e. with the sword, 'and in the next world there would be the punishment of hell' as well. [Sirat, p. 438]

It seems not clear what but "something" happened to make Muhammad change his mind and which then is justified with this sura. (Sorry, but it was not God, not even in this good thing of sparing their life. God doesn't give revelations to people who are out to murder). But even in this event, the Sirat testifies that Muhammad originally intended to kill them all.

Therefore, the historical records regarding the two "spared" tribes actually confirm that Muhammad was planning to kill all of the Qurayza just as he intended to deal with the tribes of the Banu Qaynuqa` and Banu al-Nadir. For some reason he was prevented in the first two cases. Forcibly in respect to the Banu Qainuqa, and we don't really know why in regard to the Banu al-Nadir. But: Deeds are judged by intention.

The impression becomes strong that with the third tribe Muhammad now wants to make sure that he won't be losing out on his plans again. To me, the way he asks the al-Aus and then chooses Sa`d b. Mu`adh afterwards, seems planned to prevent another tribe from escaping, and his intentions be thwarted again.

Let us have a second look at the paragraph already quoted in the above.

In the morning they submitted to the apostle's judgement and al-Aus leapt up and said, 'O Apostle, they are our allies, not allies of Khazraj, and you know how you recently treated the allies of our brethren.' Now the apostle had besieged B. Qaynuqa` who were allies of al-Khazraj and when they submitted to his judgement `Abdullah b. Ubayy b. Salul had asked him for them and he gave them to him. so when al-Aus spoke thus the apostle said: 'Will you be satisfied, O Aus, if one of your own number pronounces judgement on them ?' When they agreed he said that Sa`d b. Mu`adh was the man. [Sirat, p. 463]

The next crucial player in the tragedy enters the scene. Who is Sa`d b. Mu`adh? Why is he chosen by Muhammad? Since there is a wealth of material available in the Sirat and Hadith about this man we can answer this question with high confidence.

Jorge S Jun 16, 2018 at 7:23 pm Flag as inappropriate

surah 2:191 "And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Haram, unless they fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers.
192. But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
193. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah. But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zalimun (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.)"

surah 2:216-217 "Fighting* is ordained for you though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.
217. They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar). Say, "Fighting therein is a great but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the Way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid-al-Haram, and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion if they can. And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever."

Surah 2:217 They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: "Fighting therein is a grave (offence). but graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent access to the path of Allah to deny Him to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque and drive out its members. Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can. And if any of you turn back from their faith and die in unbelief their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the Hereafter. they will be Companions of the Fire and will abide therein.

Surah 3:56 ""As to those who disbelieve, I will punish them with a severe torment in this world and in the Hereafter, and they will have no helpers."

Surah 3:151-152 "We shall cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve, because they joined others in worship with Allah, for which He had sent no authority. their abode will be the Fire and how evil is the abode of the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers).
152. And Allah did indeed fulfill His Promise to you when you were killing them with His Permission. until you lost your courage and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed after He showed you which you love. Among you are some that desire this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then He made you flee from them, that He might test you. But surely, He forgave you, and Allah is Most Gracious to the believers.

Surah 4:74-76 "Let those who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter fight in the Cause of Allah, and whoso fights in the Cause of Allah, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward.
75. And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors. and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help."
76. Those who believe, fight in the Cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Taghut (Satan, etc.). So fight you against the friends of Shaitan. Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaitan.

Surah 4:89 "They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected, and thus that you all become equal. So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah. But if they turn back, take them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' nor helpers from them."

surah 4:95 "Not equal are those of the believers who sit, except those who are disabled, and those who strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allah has promised good (Paradise), but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit by a huge reward."

surah 4:104 "And don't be weak in the pursuit of the enemy. if you are suffering then surely, they are suffering as you are suffering, but you have a hope from Allah that for which they hope not, and Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise."

surah 5:33 "The recompense of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter."
Surah 7:124 "Surely, I will cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, then I will crucify you all."

surah 8:12 "when your Lord inspired the angels, "Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes."

surah 8:39 "And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world ]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah), then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do."

surah 8:60 "And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war. to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know. And whatever you shall spend in the Cause of Allah shall be repaid unto you, and you shall not be treated unjustly."

surah 8:67 " It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war until he had made a great slaughter in the land. You desire the good of this world, but Allah desires the Hereafter. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise."

surah 9:5 "Then when the Sacred Months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikun (see V.2:105) wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."

surah 9:14 "Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands and disgrace them and give you victory over them and heal the breasts of a believing people,"

Surah 9:23-24 "Believers, do not befriend your fathers or your brothers if they choose unbelief in preference to faith. Wrongdoers are those that befriend them.
Say: ‘If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your tribes, the property you have acquired, the merchandise you fear may not be sold, and the homes you love, are dearer to you than God, His apostle and the struggle for His cause, then wait until God shall fulfill His decree. God does not guide the evil-doers."

surah 9:29 "Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the people of the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued."

Surah 9:38-39 "O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad) you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter.
39. If you march not forth, He will punish you with a painful torment and will replace you by another people, and you cannot harm Him at all, and Allah is Able to do all things."

surah 9:111 "Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties. for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's Cause, so they kill and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Taurat and the Injeel and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success ."

surah 9:123 "O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you, and know that Allah is with those who are the Al-Muttaqun (the pious "

surah 17:16 "And when We decide to destroy a town, We send a definite order to those among them who are given the good things of this life. Then, they transgress therein, and thus the word is justified against it. Then We destroy it with complete destruction."

Surah 33:26 "And those of the people of the Scripture who backed them Allah brought them down from their forts and cast terror into their hearts, a group you killed, and a group you made captives."

surah 33:60-61 "
If the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who spread false news among the people in Al-Madinah, cease not, We shall certainly let you overpower them, then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbours but a little while.
61. Accursed, wherever found, they shall be seized and killed with a slaughter."

Surah 47:4 "So, when you meet, those who disbelieve smite at their necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly. Thereafter either for generosity, or ransom, until the war lays down its burden. Thus [you are ordered by Allah to continue in carrying out Jihad against the disbelievers till they embrace Islam or at least come under your protection], but if it had been Allah's Will, He Himself could certainly have punished them. But, in order to test you, some with others. But those who are killed in the Way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost,"

surah 61:11 " That you believe in Allah and His Messenger, and that you strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives, that will be better for you, if you but know!"

surah 66:9 "O Prophet! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be severe against them, their abode will be Hell, and worst indeed is that destination."

Jorge S Jun 16, 2018 at 7:16 pm Flag as inappropriate

Muslim, Islam they are the same. Iranians can be Christians as well as Muslim. Islamic are the ones that are the doers, they carry out the murderous hate in their Quaran. Muslim the same, but many Muslims yes, maybe they do not take part in the murdering, raping, etc. but being Muslim, they whole heartedly believe in the quaran and they are here in America and everywhere around the globe to take nations over. Islamic Muslims are the same, all their beliefs are the same. it's like if they aren’t the ones to carry out the heinous crimes they are the ones in the background cheering them on and they are taking over our nations, Yes, friendly but they have been told by their 'god' to murder Christians. I cannot let an article like this be accepted as truth. They do not have mental illness. They have a belief system and it’s to murder Christians, whites, Jews, etc. We must get them out. Look, as proof what they have done to the nations that came before America?

MysticWolf229 May 30, 2018 at 10:30 am Flag as inappropriate

My friends and neighbors growing up were Muslim. Sweet family, peaceful people who made it clear they were from Persia (not Iran) in a time when Iran was upside down. They wanted no association with what their beloved Persia had become. They became American citizens, raised their two children as Americans, and more of the family has moved to America and become citizens. Islam of violent intent is not what I think of, when I remember my dear friends who had deep Muslim roots. It is NOT the same.

Leah-1519751027 Apr 30, 2018 at 9:31 am Flag as inappropriate

It is a common opinion among some non muslims people that Islam would not have so many followers all over the world if it has not been spread by force. Was Islam spread by the sword as claimed by so many non muslims? Let's take the opinion of some people who are not even muslims and let's look at muslims today.In an article in the Reades Digest "Al manac" year book 1986 gave the statistics of the increase of percentage of the major religion of the worldin half a century from 1934 to 1984. At the top was Islam which increased by 235% and Christianity by 47%. My question is which took place in this century and which sword was used to make this happen? The Historian De Larcy O'Leary in his book"ISLAM AND THE CROSS ROAD" page 8 said " HISTORY MAKES IT CLEAR HOWEVER, THAT THE LEGEND OF FANATICAL MUSLIMS SWEEPING THROUGH THE WORLD AND FORCING ISLAM AT THE POINT OFA SWORD UPON CONQUERED RACES IS ONE OF THE MOST FANTASTICALLY ABSURD MYTH THAT HISTORIAN HAVE EVER REPEATED".Muslims ruled Spain for about 800 years and didn'tuse the sword to force the the people to convert to Islam, overall muslims ruled Arabia for 1400 years yet today there are 14 millions Arabs who are Christians.Why the majority Arab muslims didn't use the sword to change or get rid of them? The muslims ruled India for about 1000 years ,today only 14.2% are muslims, although the power to convert each and every non muslim. Indonesia has the largest number of muslims in the world and again I ask this question which muslim army went to Indonesia and Malaysia to make this happen? Similarly Islam has spread rapidly on the east African coast did the muslims force them at the point of a sword? Of course not muslims couldn't use the sword even if they wanted to because they follow the Quran and the Quran says "LET THERE BE NO COMPULSION IN RELIGION TRUTH STANDS CLEAR FROM ERROR" Chapter2 verse 256.The Quran also says " INVITE ALL TO THE WAY OF THE LORD WITH WISDOM AND BEAUTIFULPREACHING AND ARGUE WITH THEM IN WAYS THAT ARE BEST AND MOST GRACIOUS" Far from being spread by the sword, it is the inherent of truth,reason and logic that cause somany non muslims converting to Islam.Let's look at some of these reason and logic, they have realised there no reason whatsoever why Jesus should be regarded as the son of god in a literal or unique sense,how can God be born by a mortal one as other mortal, God should be powerful but how could people spit on him, crucify him as alleged. How could Jesus be God if he worshipped God as any other mortal (Luke 5:16) If the Bible was the word of god there would not be so many contradictions in it .Christians differ in their basic belief Trinity,Divinity of Jesus etc.but do not know that church doctrine contradicts the Bible numerous times and the Bible contradicts itself,due to limited space I can''t elaborate.The question that obviously must be asked after must be asked after witnessing so many clear contradictions is "IS THE BIBLE THE WORDS OF GOD ? I don't intend to deride the Christians or to mock Jesus, as a muslim I love and respect Jesus and I also studied the Bible. The intent is to point out that false charges, misrepresentations and outright lies against God.The Quran revealed to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) after the life of Jesus corrects the errors that crept into the message that Jesus brought. The Quran has no mistakes even slight ones, the Quran has no flaws or contradictions, the original Arabic scriptures has never been changed or allowed to be tampered with and thre is no doubt in the hearts of people. You feel threatened by how fast Islam is growing in he world and you feel compel to unfairly to claim that Islam is a religion of violence to keep people away from Islam.The common misconceptions arise in the mind of non muslims because bombarded with misconceptions about Islam.Some of the comments posted on this site form ignorants who lack knowledge and truth about Islam they even go as far as calling the Holy Prophet (pbuh) as a rapist these people are vile, disgusting,vulgar that is the condition of their hearts they have nothig of value to contribute. Historical records show that allcontemporaries of Muhammad both frieds and foes,acknowledge the sterling qualities the honesty,the noble virtues the absolute honesty and trustworthiness of the Pophet of Islam. Muhammad (pbuh) was more than honest.Human sympathy,human love was the music of his soul. To serve man,to elevate man,to purify man, to educate man, in a word to humanise man this was the object of his mission.In thought,in word,in action,he had the good of humanity as his sole inspiration,his sole guiding principle.

harun77 Apr 14, 2017 at 3:00 am Flag as inappropriate

I was born and brought up as a Muslim in Mauritius,from a very early age I was taught to respect other people religion and their beliefs,Mauritius is a multicultural society which is him to different culture and religion yet the idea of peaceful co-existence lives within the Mauritian community. I have lived in this country for the last 35 years and my belief , my mentality and respect for people of other faiths remains the same. The question is " IS ISLAM A RELIGION OF PEACE?" The answer is yes most definitely.But then what about all these terrorist and suicide attacks and killings of innocent people, does Islam allow these kind of attacks that we are seeing today? Of course no, Islam totally condemns violence and terrorism of any kinds. The Quran says " ANYONE WHO KILLS ANOTHER PERSON IT IS AS IF HE HAS KILLED THE WHOLE OF MANKIND AND ANY ONE WHO SAVE ONE LIFE, IT IS AS IF HE HAS SAVED THE WHOLE OF MANKIND" Chapter 5 verse 32.The word "Jihad in Islam does not mean Holy war it means to fight against temptations,self desire,fight against a tyrant ruler etc.We as Muslims condemn any form of terrorism from suicide attacks to bomb blasts, these people doing these are so ignorant about Islam with twisted perverted and warped minds they are so stupid and backwards that they think by killing innocent people randomly they are doing it for Islam and there are virgin damsels waiting for them in heaven, in fact what's waiting for them is the * fire.In a survey carried out in America 93% of Muslim condemn rejected the 9/11 and suicide attacks the other 7% believe for political reason not religion for their belief. For those who believe and has already decided that Islam is a religion of violence I ask this question, if these attacks are part of Islam why the rest of us not doing it? Why the vast majority of Muslims around the world behave as violently and aggressively as the tiny minority? According to Quran,God has created all of humankind equal,and has given each the right to pursue their own destiny.The life, honour and property of all the people in a Muslim society are considered sacred whether the person is a Muslim or not, racism, sexism and prejudice of any sorts are unacceptable in Islam the Quran says "O MANKIND! WE CREATED YOU FROM A MALE AND A FEMALE, AND MADE YOU INTO NATIONS AND TRIBES SO THAT YOU MAY KNOW EACH OTHER...." chapter:49 verse:13. No Muslim can call himself a Muslim if he didn't believe in Jesus (pbuh) Muslims love and respect Jesus (pbuh) we consider him one of the greatest of God's prophet, the Quran confirms his miracle birth and a special chapter in the Quran is entitled "MARY". Organisations like Isis and the tiny minority are a misguided group who are ignorant about Islam they misinterpret the Quran to support their misguided views,using religion to exploit people in the name of Islam. included in the Quran are statements and principles that establish the position of mankind on earth and that provide guidance and freedom of choice. The Quran also lay down the principles of human rights,women right and equality of all people regardless of gender, belief, race or culture. The Holy Quran is clearly stating that all people are equal regardless of their race, language, beliefs etc etc. The Holy Quran also calls for peace, tolerance and good treatment and deeds among all the people. It also calls for respectful, calm and wise dialogue with the followers of religions. Also clear in the Quran that judging people must be left to Allah Almighty alone and only Him and that there is compulsion in religion. Some of what is contained in the Quran includes morals, wisdom, stories, spiritual values, religious commands, recommendations and scientific facts which has amazed many scientists. Of all the religious books, the Quran alone claims, and claims emphatically to be the word of God. The Quran has no flaws or contradictions, the original Arabic scriptures has never been changed or tampered with. In the Holy Quran, there is no room for an iota of doubt of any kind, whosoever has any doubt, it is because of his own ignorance.

Before we point fingers, it has to be proven without doubt who the attackers are. Suicide bombers are not exclusive to Islam, but nowadays any and every attack is blamed on Muslims. We Muslims should follow the Holy Prophet Muhammad (may peace be upon him) and the Holy Quran and condemn any form of terrorism from suicide attacks to bomb blasts. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said that a very good Muslim is one who avoids harming the people with his tongue and hands. Faith is a restraint against all violence. Let no Muslim commit violence. And the Holy Quran says: "Anyone who kills another person, it is as if he has killed the whole of mankind, and anyone who saves one life, is as if he has saved the whole of mankind" 5:32. Regarding suicide bombings and the killing of innocent people, I am a Muslim and they are not doing this in my name.

Adam Apr 7, 2017 at 5:17 am Flag as inappropriate

Many people are not accurately educated regarding the reason for the Crusades in which Christians did fight and kill Muslims. It was only after the Islamic religion by the sword, not evangelism, had conquered a huge area of Europe and Africa. Muslims dominated by terror, torture, and murder. Convert to Islam or die. When only about one third of Christians remained alive did they fight back to stay alive and eventually attempt to regain what was wrongfully taken from them by Islam followers. At what point do you believe it is ok for another person or religion to take what belongs to you and demand you bow to their beliefs? In the Old Testament God told his people to fight and kill every person of certain areas and do not leave anyone alive. He also told his people do not follow or take up their ways or beliefs. God also told them not to marry them lest they take up their ways of idolatry and sinful living and become an abomination unto God. Yes, Jesus loves everyone but everyone of us has to repent and follow Jesus for eternal salvation. We do love Islamic peoples and are reaching out to care for them. Many Islamic people are afraid to accept Jesus as their personal Savior and Lord. Many Islamic people are determined to kill us for they accept and believe the Islamic religion. The Islamic peoples believe we are infidels. When the Islamic peoples out number any group (Christian or non-Christian) they will force you to submit to Allah or die.

Holly Campbell Aug 14, 2016 at 2:06 am Flag as inappropriate

Allah is the name of the old Arab stone idol of the moon-god.
The Quran was inspired by demons whispering to Muhd and is full on contradictions and lies compared to the Bible which tells the truth and was directly inspired by God the Father of Jesus.

rosewhite Jan 7, 2016 at 4:04 pm Flag as inappropriate

I would like one copy of the booklet

Bishop Clement Oct 6, 2015 at 6:25 pm Flag as inappropriate

I haven't read the pamphlet but read some of the comments. Raised catholic but now a non practicing adult. abandoning all beliefs that were ingrained in my psyche, however, is hard to do. People are going to believe in spiritual doctrines to fill intangible voids or lack of factual explanations for situations. I feel that a person's religion should be their own private matter. Maybe if it were the case then these problems wouldn't exist. I have attended many services of various denominations. I must say I have walked out on a few because I thought they were too irreverent. Yelling, rolling and flinging around, etc. I feel that if I died and came face to face with God I wouldn't be carrying on like, frankly I'd be speechless. That's just me. So, I got up and left. End of story. I think every religion has "variations" to accommodate who? Not God but people. Choose what you believe and avoid what you don't. Don't criticize anyone's religion because NO ONE KNOWS what the afterlife holds for us IF there even is one. As I stated before, I was raised catholic and and will acknowledge that I am not very knowledgeable of the Muslim religion. Having said that, my family is sponsoring a french exchange student whom I just learned is Muslim. I will use this opportunity to learn as much as i can from this experience. If I am wrong in what i believe now I will come back and eat my words but I don't believe I will. Stay tuned.

marleeton Oct 5, 2015 at 11:39 am Flag as inappropriate

There are two major islam division: sunni & shia. Their belief are not same. And of these division, there are small fragments and teachings are not same with each other. I met alot of muslim people in diff. nationalities..all of them are good and kind but only at the time of talking face to face...and when it comes to truthfulness and faithfulness of their heart, they usually turn back to their first word..

Edwin Jun 27, 2015 at 7:27 am Flag as inappropriate

I find it incredible that "intelligent" beings would believe what is written in the Quran. 6th Century mentality surviving in the 21st Century.

gm2070 May 18, 2015 at 10:52 am Flag as inappropriate

To Jesus christ be the glory. Prayer can change the world.

kato ivan Mar 31, 2015 at 9:13 am Flag as inappropriate

Islam is a religion of violence; it was started and spread by violence. It's major tool is deceit or propaganda.

Israel Feb 24, 2015 at 6:45 am Flag as inappropriate

I have neighbors and relatives that are Muslim's and kind, loving upstanding folk. On one occasion my Muslim cousin was critical of the U.S. and Israel, yet when asked which Muslim or Arab country he would want to live in he was silent. With my having served in the U.S. Army, while in Kabul we had to attend weekly mandatory (Islam) culture classes taught by Afghan, devout Muslim professors with PhD's. They were clear; we American's were not respected as their Muslim brother Osama bin Laden was. Any non-Muslim was/is an infidel and worthy of death unless they convert. In Arab or Muslim countries that have Muslim schools children are indoctrinated to hate America and Israel (as no doubt Barack Obama was). Consequently, those who try to turn a doctrine of hate into a religion of peace are the radical ones who have perverted the Islamic religion.

LoG111 Feb 20, 2015 at 9:17 pm Flag as inappropriate

am unable to download the text. I will be glad if you can send me copy. For me its a must read. Thank you. woman of God-Nigeria.

peggy suzzy Feb 20, 2015 at 4:29 pm Flag as inappropriate

CBN administrator posted:
"They "interpret" the words in the Quran to justify what they do."
FLASH: Many christians do exactly the same thing with the Bible !

Mezeus Feb 20, 2015 at 11:22 am Flag as inappropriate

I would love to know who the authors of this publication are. Why isn't this given?

savage Feb 19, 2015 at 3:17 pm Flag as inappropriate

I'm a Believer in Jesus Christ, and that He is Lord and King, and my prayer is to hide His Word in my heart that I might not sin against Him. He is coming back soon and I thank God for the revelation on Islam which is an enemy of Christ. Please don't respond with any hate mail, I'm a TRUE BELIEVER. I've never heard a jihadist (sic) doing anything productive (building schools, roads, businesses or communities) only fighting and killing and taking over someone else's life of hard work. Jesus said, the thief (Satan) comes to steal, kill and destroy, but I have come, that you may have Life, and that more abundantly. Choose you this day whom you will serve: either Life (Jesus) or Death (Satan). it's that simple.....

DaFord Feb 18, 2015 at 12:00 am Flag as inappropriate

Thank you for your interest in CBN's Islam: Religion of Peace or War? booklet. For those having trouble opening the download, our tech. department has looked into the download link and it is opening. Please visit http://www.cbn.com/contact/feedback-tech.aspx for technical help or call 1-800-823-6053 to request an Islam: Religion of Peace or War? booklet through the mail or by email. We are not able to fulfill requests posted in the comments on this section of myCBN. Thank you for being a part of myCBN community.

CBN.COM ADMIN

CBN.COM ADMIN Feb 17, 2015 at 2:56 pm Flag as inappropriate

In the 28 years I've been a muslim, I've talked to hundreds of muslims and have been to masjids (mosques) in 7 different states. NEVER ONCE have I heard any of them say that terrorism is allowed, that muslims should take over the world, that Islam should be forced on non-believers or Sharia law should be the law of the land.

The "muslims" that say that terrorism is allowed and all of the other things are not practicing true Islam. They "interpret" the words in the Quran to justify what they do and they are a very small percentage of all muslims.

All of the muslims I know denounce terrorism and the terrorists who do that.

ginah711 Feb 7, 2015 at 12:32 am Flag as inappropriate